In recent years, the areas of bilateral cooperation have been broadened and deepened. China and Egypt have signed a number of agreements and protocols, such as the Protocol on Agricultural Cooperation; the Agreement on Cooperation on Animal Health and Quarantine, the Agreement on Cooperation on Vegetarian Quarantine; The Convention on Cooperation in the Petroleum Field; the agreement on cooperation in the field of tourism. Direct flight between Egypt and China resumed in January 2003. Egypt is a signatory to several multilateral trade agreements: [13] Hesham Ibrahim, “Mankai has agreed with 80 companies to invest in the Sino-Egyptian textile park,” Amwal Al Ghad, 11. January 2020, en.amwalalghad.com/chinas-mankai-agrees-with-80-firms-to-invest-in-egypts-textile-city/; and Ahmed Kamel, “Egypt Judges Chinese Garment Manufacturers Seeking Refuge,” Nikkei Asian Review, July 28, 2019, asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-trends/Egypt-courts-Chinese-clothing-makers-seeking-tariff-refuge. [40] At the end of 2018, China had invested $7.2 billion in 1736 projects, but it ranks 20th among the largest investment countries. See for example: “Bilateral trade between China and Egypt reaches $5.2 billion in seven months,” Mubasher, August 26, 2020. LexisNexis. The two countries signed an agreement that included Beijing`s commitment to provide three hundred police cars to Egypt and a $200 million loan to the Egyptian National Bank. A cooperation agreement in the fields of tourism, environment and agriculture was signed and the need to attract investment to Egypt was discussed.

Discussions between the leaders of the two states focused on political issues: the civil war in Syria, the stabilization of the situation in the Middle East, the possible use of the Suez Canal for the passage of Chinese warships in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The Mediterranean is an essential route of Beijing`s foreign policy. In 2015, li Keqiang, premier of the State Council of the People`s Republic of China, announced the need to revitalize China in the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Adriatic. In early 2013, the Silk Road and Economic Belt Initiative was launched, a Chinese approach aimed at improving existing trade routes and creating new transport and economic routes connecting more than 60 countries in Central Asia, Europe and Africa. The project contributes to the development of trade relations between the PRC and other countries. As part of its “One Belt, One Road Global Economic Expansion Program”, China is trying to intensify trade across the Suez Canal. The Belt and Road Initiative crosses not only Egypt, but also other Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Greece. However, China faces stiff opposition from EU countries, whose leaders perceive the One Belt initiative, One Road, as a threat to European economies. In this context, Egypt becomes a convenient partner for China. Particularly in view of its difficult socio-economic situation, the Arab Republic is forced to develop trade and economic relations with the PRC, thus voluntarily ceding its market to Chinese entrepreneurs. Today, Beijing is an important military partner of Cairo.

From 2012 to 2014, China delivered eighteen ASN-209 unmanned (UAV) aircraft to Egypt; From 2017 to 2018, ten Wing Loong-1 drones arrived at the AER and an agreement was reached in 2018 with the Arab Republic for the supply of Wing Loong 2 drones. [12] “Teda Suez, a Cooperation Model,” China Daily, August 8, 2019, www.fx361.com/page/2019/0808/5392418.shtml; Ahmed Elleithy, “Chinese car manufacturer produces electric cars in Egypt”, Al-Monitor, 7. July 2020, www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/06/egypt-china-agreement-electric-cars-economy-coronavirus.html#ixzz6YUyCU5XQ; “Egypt is addressing China to build the electric vehicle sector,” Electrive.com, 24. February 2020, www.electrive.com/2020/02/24/chinese-ev-manufacturing-to-take-off-in-egypt/:text=the%20country`s%20oldest%20automotive%20manufacturing,produce%2025%2C000%20electrictric%20veclecles%20annig; and “Egypt launches electric bus production in November: Minister,” Al-Masry Al-Youm reported in the Egypt Independent, February 23, 2020, egyptindependent.com/egypt-to-start-electric-bus-production-in-november-minister/. . . .