Ideological differences have led to issues that arise, particularly human rights. The 2004 Afghan Constitution protects women`s rights, such as speech and education, as well as freedom of the press, including freedom of expression, both of which have been repressed under Taliban rule in Afghanistan. Khalilzad, Ghani, Abdullah and several other senior Afghan officials have all said that these rights should be protected and not sacrificed in a peace agreement.  Afghanistan`s first lady, Rula Ghani, has been active in protecting women`s rights.  Afghan journalists have called for the press to be protected in any peace agreement.  Within the Obama administration, a change of mentality and strategy took place in 2010 to allow for possible political negotiations to resolve the war.  The Taliban themselves had refused to talk to the Afghan government and presented it as an American “puppet.” Subsequently, sporadic peace talks took place between the United States and the Taliban, and in October 2010 it was reported that Taliban commanders (the Quetta Shura) had left their Haven in Pakistan and were safely escorted to Kabul by NATO planes to chat, with assurances that they would not be arrested by NATO personnel.  At the end of the talks, it turned out that the head of this delegation, who claimed to be Akhtar Mansour, the Taliban`s second commander, was actually a crook who had deceived NATO officials.  Just as the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Afghanistan is the Taliban`s main demand in this agreement, the U.S. has made the Taliban`s renunciation of ties to other uprisings its primary claim.
A second phase of the peace process would bring together representatives of the Afghan government, opponents, representatives of civil society and the Taliban to discuss a political roadmap to end the war. Abdullah Abdullah, chairman of the High Council for National Reconciliation, visited leaders in Islamabad and New Delhi in October 2020 to convince them to support an Afghan peace agreement.  A senior Pakistani official said India wanted to “spoil” peace in Afghanistan.  Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi intends to anticipate his commitment to a peaceful Afghanistan.  India confirmed “active participation” in the Inter-Sudanese Doha negotiations.  “Part of the peace process is to start dismantling the [sanctions] building, but the language is carefully constructed to be subject to conditions based on the performance of the Taliban,” the official said. “If the Taliban don`t do what we hope they will do, our demands to start dismantling this building are corrupt.” For O`Hanlon, the Doha peace agreement is just the beginning. Russia.
Moscow hopes to revive relations with Afghanistan, which were shattered by the country`s withdrawal in 1989, after decades of occupation. Experts say Russia wants to play a leading role in the peace process and strengthen its influence in Afghanistan in order to counter the presence of the United States and NATO in the region. Last year, several meetings were held between Taliban delegations and Afghan representatives. The United States and the Taliban signed the peace agreement on February 29 in Doha, Qatar. At the same time, experts say the Taliban are now stronger than at any time in the past eighteen years. With about sixty thousand fighters, it controls many districts throughout the country and continues to launch large attacks, including in Kabul and on Afghan security bases.